Fragments of Life: Printed Ephemera in Louisiana
Florence M. Jumonville
The White Rabbit put on his spectacles. "Where shall I begin,
please your Majesty?" he asked.
"Begin at the beginning," the King said, gravely, "and
go on till you come to the end: then stop."
Lewis Carroll, Alices Adventures in Wonderland1
Of ephemeral printing in Louisiana, there was a beginning, but
there is no end. The beginning, unrecorded and probably not remarked
upon at the time, occurred during the colonial period. In 1764 Denis
Braud, a New Orleans merchant to whom Louis XV of France had granted
exclusive printing, publishing, and bookselling privileges in Louisiana,
imported the provinces first printing equipment. It was the
earliest press established beyond the English colonies in the present
United States. For several years before it arrived, Braud used an
engraved plate to print treasury bills, none of which survive. This
constitutes probably the inception of printed ephemera in Louisiana.
The earliest extant examples are broadsides that published governors
proclamations and other official announcements.2 Circulated
about New Orleans and the outposts for the citizenry to read, and
now an excellent research source, they have been called "the
free history books of the streets."3
and his colonial successors were permitted to print only what government
officials authorized; comparable regulations inhibited other endeavors.
In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase ended these restrictions, and enterprising
Americans, attracted by the prospect of opportunity, swarmed into
Louisiana. The population, further augmented by immigrants from
Santo Domingo and other countries, skyrocketed. This influx contributed
to the areas swift cultural and economic growth and resulted
in political conflicts between the old inhabitants and the newcomers.
These factors, combined with the establishment of a new government
that would generate considerable business, sparked an increase in
the quantity of work available to local printers, precisely when
more men were pursuing such employment4 A concomitant
development was the proliferation of printed ephemera.
Birth, graduation, marriage, and death are significant episodes
in a persons life. If the first ephemera an individual acquires
are associated with his birth, the next probably result from his
education. Teachers distribute report cards and printed commendations
for scholarship, good behavior, and regular attendance. Many schools
issue student and faculty handbooks, graduation announcements and
invitations, calendars, schedules, and annual catalogues (see Figure1).
These are of research interest for their images of the campus, lists
of instructors and pupils, synopses of the curriculum, and descriptions
of long-forgotten aspects of student life. Catalogue of Louisiana
College, for example, stated in 1855, "Until a proper bathing-house
shall be provided, students bathe in the river." Written permission
from parents or guardians was required, and when baths were in progress
a boat stood by "...with oarsmen to afford assistance as occasion
Relatives and friends often are requested to attend the ceremonies
commemorating lifes milestonesbaptisms, commencement
exercises, weddings, funerals. Of invitations to these rituals,
the first known to have been printed in Louisiana were those associated
with burial; the Widow Roche, a New Orleans printer, advertised
"funeral tickets" as early as 1810.6 In England,
such items date from the seventeenth century midrange from simple
cards to masterpieces of engraving that depict the symbols of death:
skeletons, mourners bearing a coffin, a winged hourglass, and others.
Funeralia created in the United States during die Victorian period
endures in abundance, partly because it was produced in quantity
and partly because, unlike most types of ephemera, it encompassed
keepsakes, such as memorial cards.7
of funeral invitations from throughout Louisiana survive, some in
the English language and others in French, from the nineteenth century
almost to the present day. Most were posted about town, which accounts
far rips at the top of existing copies. Typically, they are bordered
in black; bear a printers ornament depicting a cross, a mourner
beside a tomb, or some similar device; feature the word DIED or
DECEDEE and the name of the decedent in large, heavy type; and provide
the time and location of the funeral (see Figure 2). To announce
the burials of persons whose estates could not afford these personalized
announcements, stationers stocked a standard version, printed with
blank spaces in which a survivor or the undertaker wrote the particulars.
For slaves during the antebellum period, sale to new owners was,
tragically, among lifes turning points. Broadsides, like one
advertising the auction of property of the late Charles S. Lee of
Concordia Parish, serve as reminders of the atrocity of slavery.
After describing various tracts of land, livestock, and farming
equipment, the broadside listed 130 slaves, giving their names and
ages; numerous children, some not yet a year old, were among them.
The advertisement added, "The Negroes are all acclimated and
very likely, having been selected by Mr. Lee with the greatest care."8
Another milestone, this one longed-for, was manumission, and memorials
of freedom also survive. When federal soldiers occupied New Orleans
on May 1, 1862, they brought with them army field presses to print
general orders to the troops. Most of these recorded courts-martial,
released new appointments, and announced directives, but General
Orders No. 12 of the Department of the Gulf, issued on January 29,
1863, promulgated Abraham Lincolns proclamation of emancipation
and included a reprint of the proclamation. It is probably the only
separate printing of that pronouncement in the wartime South.9
as funeral invitations are appropriately solemn, so do other invitations,
by their typography and ornamentation, recall something of the ambience
of the event. In the mid-nineteenth century, embossing and other
advances in printing technology engendered a variety of exquisite
papers that were ideally suited for invitations to social events.
Lace paper, created accidentally in 1834 as the result of extreme
embossing that penetrated the paper, was imported from Britain in
the laze 1840s; American manufacturers soon went into business in
the Northeast.10 The job office of the New Orleans Picayune
offered an assortment of decorative styles, to which the printer
added information pertaining to a specific gathering. In 1853, for
example, an invitation to a "fancy and dress soiree" at
the St Charles Hotel in New Orleans was overprinted in blue and
gold on paper with a lace border.
Menusfrom restaurants, hotels, trains, and steamboatspresent
the history of food in a microcosm, offering insight into societys
economic and social classes as well as trends in food service and
dietary habits. During the nineteenth century, standard bills of
fare at most restaurants were unadorned and usually were discarded
at closing time. Ornate menus, some sturdy enough to withstand handling,
listed even daily meals at steamboat and hotel restaurants. They
often omitted prices because these establishments operated on the
American plan. This arrangement, derived from the English colonial
practice of lodgers partaking of whatever fare the innkeeper and
his family ate, meant that guests received room and meals for a
Especially in small towns, the best eateries often were those maintained
by hotels, and they prided themselves on the variety, quality, and
abundance of edibles available in their dining rooms. At special
feasts, food was provided in even greater quantity, giving rise
to the still-popular banquet. Hotels repeatedly hosted meals sponsored
by groups of persons with similar interests, political affiliations,
ethnic or geographic origins, or jobs. Ornamented paper served well
for the keepsake menus hotels frequently issued on major holidays
and for souvenir menus of dinners honoring such dignitaries as Louisiana
governor P.O. Hebert (see Figure 3). In 1847 a testimonial for Zachary
Taylor, hero of the Mexican War, featured a menu printed on satin.12
A trip, which is of temporary duration, naturally engenders a variety
of ephemera. Promotional materials enticed the vacationer with such
offers as Three Grand Excursions to New Orleans, during the Period
of the Worlds Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition.
This thirty-two-page pamphlet invited tourists to take one of three
trips sponsored by W. Raymond and I. A. Whitcomb of Boston in early
1885. It described, in addition to New Orleans and the Exposition,
numerous Louisiana towns along the Mississippi River.
Other ephemera lured the permanent settler. An early example is
a German-language broadside, its title translated as "Geographical
Description of the Province Louisiana in Canada from the St. Lawrence
River to the Mouth of the Mississippi River and a short report of
the now flourishing stock trade." Written anonymously and published
at Leipzig in 1719, it invited German investors to encourage trade
in and colonization of Louisiana.13 More recent efforts
to promote settlement occurred in the late nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries and inspired such pamphlets as Come to Claiborne
Parish, published about 1904 by the Claiborne Parish Immigration
Association in Homer, and St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, Its
Natural Resources and Advantages, issued two years later by
the St Bernard Parish Immigration League.
Tickets, itineraries, and timetables are among printed necessities
associated with transport by land, water, and air. In Louisiana,
river travel played a major role in transportationand in the
creation of printed ephemera. In 1871, for example, a ticket for
cabin passage on the Lizzie Hopkins, a sternwheel packet
that regularly plied the waters between New Orleans and the Upper
Coast with occasional trips to Shreveport, was printed on the back
cover of a thirty-two-page Steamboat Ticket Advertiser, or Strangers
Pocket Guide. Lists of banks, churches, and places of interest
in New Orleans supplemented a table of distances, schedules of hack
and cab rates, and advertising for hotels, dentists, a "Ladies
Hair Store," and other businesses. Blanks provided space for
the passengers name and his assigned cabin and berth.
Nineteenth-century "ribbon maps," meant to be used by
steamboat captains and other travelers on the Mississippi River,
were printed in several panels that were intended to be cut apart
and pasted to each other end to end, then rolled up and kept in
ones pocket, to be uncoiled as the vessel navigated the river.
Some maps followed the Mississippi from northern Louisiana to its
mouth, while others covered a smaller area in greater detail, naming
every planter who owned abutting property. Because the river constantly
changed course and these maps were waiting tools, new ones rapidly
replaced older versions, and few survive today.
thousands of visitors to Louisiana in the past hundred or so years
have dispatched postcards to friends back home. Sending postcards
began in Austria in 1869; those with pictures emerged the next year
in France and spread throughout Europe. In the United States they
flourished especially after the appearance of a set of souvenir
cards from the Worlds Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893.
A decrease in the postage rate in l898 gave new impetus to the practice
of mailing postcards, and between 1904 and 1914, collecting them
was one of the worlds most popular hobbies. They fell from
favor when World War I began, to be supplanted by greeting cards.
Postcards often are absent from lists of ephemera because they comprise
a collecting specialty known as "deltiology," from Greek
words meaning "small picture" and "knowledge."14
Postcards depicting Louisiana locales became available in the late
1890s. Some specimens provide the earliest color images of the Pelican
States sites and structures or the only surviving illustration
of a building or an event. All too rarely does a typeset date appear,
but postcards that actually passed through the mail (as opposed
to being saved as souvenirs) often bear messages dated in manuscript
or readable postmarks that permit an estimate of their age.
Friendship and Romance
The earliest extant Louisiana ephemera related to a social event
is an invitation issued in 1803 by Pierre Clement de Laussat, the
prefect who represented France at the retrocession of Louisiana
to that nation from Spain and then at the provinces transfer
to the United States, to a soiree honoring Spanish former governor
Casa-Calvo. It would be the first of many invitations distributed
by individuals, local and state governments, and various organizations.
Heralding events as long ago as Laussats gala and as recent
as yesterday, these invitations summoned prospective guests to all
manner of balls, dinners, concerts, lectures, civic events, fund-raisers,
and ceremonies. Days or decades later, they record the occasion
and suggest something of its distinct character.
ephemera associated with social events includes dance programs.
Upon this appurtenance of the formal ballroom, ladies listed their
dancing partners. Usually a folded card, small enough to fit into
an evening bag, the program was printed on the inside with the sequence
of waltzes, schottisches, polkas, and other popular dances the orchestra
would play, with blank spaces wherein the lady wrote her partners
name. Some dance cards came complete with a pencil, attached by
means of a tasseled cord. Most were stock designs, overprinted,
if the customer wished, with details of a particular occasion; only
very special balls warranted unique designs (see Figure 4).15
As the nineteenth century progressed, new means of transportation,
from steam engines to riverboats to bicycles, rendered the citizenry
more mobile than ever before. With wider circle of acquaintances,
Americans formed many friendships aid often exchanged tokens of
esteem with their comrades, some of whom now were far away. Clasped
hands, the sign of friendship, appeared on notepaper and in the
designs of visiting cards, greeting cards, and wedding rings. Lace
paper lent itself especially well to the creation of dainty valentines;
and as a result of their popularity, its use spread to Christmas
cards and those marking other holidays. While the production of
such salutations flourished in other parts of the nation, in the
1870s New Orleans lithographer Daniel Anton Buechner designed such
greetings as New Years cards that depicted celebrating frogs.16
American-made greeting cards appeared in 1874 when Louis Prang,
a German-born lithographer working in Boston, added them to his
repertoire. Many of these greetings were created by means of chromolithography,
or color printing, a process that began to be used in America in
1840 and soared to popularity for commercial purposes some twenty
years later. Called "the democratic art" because it made
art, or a close approximation of it, available to the masses, chromolithography
brought to printing a depth, a luminescence, and a brilliance of
color it had never known before and will not experience again. By
the end of the nineteenth century, the introduction of a less labor-intensive
four-color photomechanical printing process, combined with the influence
of widely circulated magazines and mass advertising, started the
decline of chromolithography; within three decades it had vanished.
Dazzling chromos, however, survive.17
An important sideline of the Victorian chromolithographers
work was the production of "scraps" or die-cuts. Produced
first in Germany, where they were called oblaten or glanzbilder
("wafers" or "gloss pictures"), scraps spread
to Britain and the United States and in the 1860s and 1870s enjoyed
astonishing popularity. Created through a process that combined
chromo printing, die-cutting, and embossed relief, brilliantly colored
scraps depicted flowers, vehicles, persons (most often beautiful
women or cherubic children), birds, animals, religious subjects,
and holiday themes. Girls and women applied them in profusion to
fire screens, gift boxes, chairs, glass jars, and other objects,
and carefully pasted them into albums.18
Another use for scraps was trimming greeting cards. In England,
the custom of sending valentines dates from the times of Chaucer
and of Shakespeare. Its heyday dawned in 1840 when the advent of
the Uniform Penny Past enabled persons from all classes of society
to exchange messages at reasonable cost. There and in the United
States, these expressions of devotion grew increasingly elaborate
as the century advanced, sometimes including tissue-paper honeycombs
in rich pinks, aquas, and other pastels (not until the 1920s was
red universally accepted as the color of Valentines Day).
"Hidden name" visiting cards, which concealed the callers
name beneath a decorative chromolithographed flap (see Figure 5),
were, however, an American innovation. Like valentines, an important
characteristic of which was secrecy, these cards expressed an emotional
messageusually a declaration of affection, a wish for the
recipients happiness, or a plea for kind thoughtsin
diminutive type nestled among birds and flowers.19
Theater and music thrived in New Orleans as early as the 1700s.
Song sheets lyrics of songs printed without musical notation,
to be sung by persons already familiar with the airswere available
in New Orleans by 1798, when copies of a piece entitled La
Danse Française" sold for one escalin (12 1/2
cents). In an era when books were for clergymen, scholars, and gentlemen
with private libraries, song-sheets appealed to the masses. A continuance
of the folk tradition of minstrelsy, they descended from broadside
ballads that flourished in England from the sixteenth century to
the end of the nineteenth. In Louisiana, song-sheets experienced
perhaps their greatest popularity in the 1860s, when the fervor
engendered by the Civil War (1861-1865) inspired the publication
of such Confederate favorites as "Hurrah for the South!"
and "Volunteer Mess Song."20
During the antebellum period, New Orleanians and planters stopping
in the city with their families could enjoy plays at the American
Theater, opera at the St. Charles and the Theatre dOrleans,
and concerts by local artists or by visiting luminaries like Jenny
Lind; inhabitants of even the smaller communities attended performances
by amateur groups, touring companies, and, in river towns, showboat
troupes.21 All forms of public entertainmenttheater,
opera, concerts, circuses, fireworks displaysshare a common
need for an audience. During the colonial period, the town crier
may have proclaimed the current program as he made his rounds; but,
as competition grew and the citizenrys level of literacy rose,
managers relied increasingly on the printed advertisements.22
That such advertisements were used in New Orleans during the eighteenth
century is evidenced by a printed announcement of performances on
September 3, 1799, of Nicolas Dalayracs opera Renaud dAst
and a ballet by Jean-Baptiste Francisquy.23
Typographic posters, or broadsides, used typefaces of various sizes
and degrees of ornamentation to identify the theater and to announce
its current and coming attractions, their casts (actors names
always preceding those of actresses), show dates and times, and
the price of admission (see Figure 6). Later examples sometimes
included a rough portrait of the star or a scene from the production.
Printed on low-quality paper, they were nailed or pasted, often
illegally, on fences, walls, and every other available surface.
In other parts of the country, typographic posters measured about
21 by 14 inches, or one-fourth of a 42- by 28-inch "sheet,"
the largest size most presses of the era could accommodate.24
Examples found in Louisiana, however, more often were half as wide,
approximating the dimensions of one-eighth sheet.
Until the late nineteenth century these long, narrow broadsides,
and before them their shorter precursors, doubled as programs. This
had been customary in England, where American theater has its roots,
by the 1670s. The oldest extant American specimen, from a New York
performance of The Orphan in 1750, endures because it was
pasted on the back of a mirror. Eventually these broadsides were
supplanted on walls and fences by colorful posters of the kind introduced
in the 1870s to promote circuses, and in theatergoers hands
by smaller, booklet-like programs.25
While the better theaters issued their own playbills, lesser establishments
added pertinent data to stock designs. Advertising often threatened
to overwhelm the pithy sections about the play and performers, but
it financed the printing and enabled the management to distribute
programs without charge. The Black Crook, which opened in
New York in 1866 and played there for sixteen months, set a precedent
by issuing special souvenir programs. Subsequent mementos, often
printed on satin or silk, commemorated various shows landmark
performances. In the beginning, they were complimentary. Producers
soon realized that fans would pay for them and made eye-catching
programs available at all performances, imposing a small charge
which has grown larger as years have passed.26 When playwright
Joshua Logan, who had grown up in Mansfield, brought his Kind
Sir to the Civic Theatre in New Orleans for its world premiere
in 1953, first-nighters received an attractive souvenir playbill
printed on bright pink satin.
With the twentieth century came another form of public entertainment:
motion pictures. Movies gave rise to a new panoply of printed ephemera,
including typographic and pictorial posters, lobby cards, handbills,
and programs, small specimens distributed free and more elaborate
ones that involved a charge. First-run engagements of major productions
like A Midsummer Nights Dream, which played at the
New Orleans Orpheum in January 1936, featured sturdy complimentary
programs that noted the cast and information about the story and
background music. Other innovationsphonograph, radio, and
later television brought entertainment into the home. They
generated yet another range of ephemera operating instructions,
catalogues, and advertising (see Figure 7). Today the use of these
devices, and of other household appliances, has become so commonplace
that one forgets how recently they were novelties and how dramatic
has been their impact on the use of leisure timeand on the
proliferation of ephemera.27
Lottery tickets, calendars, baseball scorecards, church bulletins,
lawyers briefsthe multiplicity of ephemera that has
been created is phenomenal and ever growing. Through the centuries,
its production has depended upon advances in printing technology.
Recent developments in desk-top publishing, notably the advent of
the laser printer, have made writers, editors, and advertisers of
anyone with the proper equipment and have given rise to instant
ephemera, created in ones home or office. While much of it
promptly, deservedly, lands in the wastebasket, other specimens
will survive as souvenirs of the twentieth century, constantly adding
to the variety of printed ephemera available to future generations
of collectors long after the now-modern printing equipment that
produced them has become obsolete. Locating ephemera of the past
is a matter of finding the right attic. Identifying ephemera of
the present is perhaps more difficult because these materials surround
us as unremarkable fragments of everyday life. Whatever form ephemeral
printing takes in the future, it will persevere wherever there are
1 Carroll, Alices Adventures in Wonderland
(London: Macmillan, 1866), 182.
2 Florence M. Jumonville, Bibliography of New Orleans
Imprints, 1764-1864 (New Orleans: Historic New Orleans Collection,
1989), xix. Elsewhere, the oldest example of printed ephemera was
an indulgence issued by the Roman Catholic Church in 1454.
John Lewis, Printed Ephemera: The Changing Uses of Type and
English and American Printing (Ipswich, Suffolk, Eng.:
W. S. Cowell, 1962), .
3 Leslie Shepard, The History of Street Literature: The
Story of Broadside Ballads, Chapbooks, Proclamations, News-Sheets,
Election Bills, Tracts, Pamphlets, Cocks, Catchpennies, and Other
Ephemera (Newton Abbot, Devon, Eng.: David & Charles, 1973),
14. See Faye Phillips, "I Like Ike: Collecting Political
Ephemera," in this issue.
4 Jumonville, New Orleans Imprints, xxv-xxvi.
5 Catalogue of Louisiana College (Parish of
St. James, LA: (The College], 1855), 19-
20. This and most other Louisiana ephemera described herein are
available at the Historic New Orleans Collection.
6 Le Courrier de la Louisiane, Sept. 17, 1810,
7 Lewis, Printed Ephemera, 149-150; Maurice Rickards,
Collecting Printed Ephemera (New York: Abbeville Press, 1988),
8 G. W. Keeton, "Probate Sale" (Natchez,
MS: Daily Courier, (1837]).
9 U. S. Army, Department of the Gulf, "General
Orders No.12" (New Orleans: [s.n.] 1862 [i.e. 1863]).
10 Rickards, Collecting Printed Ephemera,
11 Reynaldo Alejandro, Classic Menu Design:
From the Collections of the New York
Public Library (Glen Cove, NY: PBC International, 1988),
, ; Jefferson Williamson, The American Hotel: An Anecdotal
History (New York: Knopf, 1930),
192-193. A steamer menu from the Wade Hampton, printed at
the Magic Press Print in New Orleans, is illustrated in Katherine
J. Adams, "Organizing an Ephemera Collection: Some Principles,"
in this issue.
12 Printing on cloth began in England in 1690 and came
to North America during the colonial period, where the earliest
printed textiles were bandannas, kerchiefs, and handkerchiefs that
usually portrayed American military or political topics or commemorated
historical events. Herbert Ridgeway Collins, Threads of History:
Americana Recorded on Cloth, 1775 to the Present (Washington:
Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979), 1-2; Alejandro, Classic
Menu Design, , ; Williamson, American Hotel,
13 Hildegard Binder Johnson, French Louisiana
and the Development of the German Triangle (Minneapolis: Associates
of the James Ford Bell Library, University of Minnesota, 1983),
14 Alan Clinton, Printed Ephemera: Collection
Organisation and Access (London:
Clive Bingley, 1981), 37; Andreas Brown, "Postcards: Pictures
for Personal Messages,"
The Encyclopedia of Collectibles: Phonographs to Quilts
(Alexandria, Va.: Time-Life Books, 1979), 76-79.
15 Cynthia Hart, John Grossman, and Priscilla Dunhill,
"Romantic Notions" [Chapter 6] in A Victorian Scrapbook
(New York: Workman Publishing, 1989), passim.; Rickards, Collecting
Printed Ephemera, 146-147.
16 Hart [and others], Victorian Scrapbook,
, passim.; Rickards, Collecting Printed Ephemera, ;
Howard A. Buechner, Daniel Anton Buechner, Master Lithographer
of Old New Orleans (1856-1937): Creator of Mardi Gras Art and the
Famous Labels (Metairie, LA: Thunderbird Press, 1983), 78.
17 Sharron Uhler, "My Dear Mr. Prang,"
The Ephemera Journal 1 (1987): 28-32; Rickards, Collecting
Printed Ephemera, ; Hart [and others], Victorian Scrapbook,
14-15; Peter C. Marzio, "The Democratic Art of Chromolithography:
An Overview," in Art & Commerce: American Prints of
the Nineteenth Century (Charlottesville, VA: University Press
of Virginia, 1978), 77-102 passim.
18 Rickards, Collecting Printed Ephemera,
[150-151; Hart [and others], Victorian Scrapbook, 129, passim.
19 Clinton, Printed Ephemera, 36; Rickards,
Collecting Printed Ephemera, [1241-125; Hart [and others],
Victorian Scrapbook, -; Francine Kirsch, "The
Festive Honeycomb: A Fantasia in Tissue," AB Bookmans
Weekly 85 (March 5, 1990): 950-957.
20 No copies of "La Danse Française"
are known to survive. Jack D. L. Holmes, "The Moniteur de la
Louisiane in 1798," Louisiana History 2 (1961): 244-245;
Shepard, Street Literature, 13-14, 21; Jumonville, New Orleans
21 John R. Kemp, New Orleans (Woodland
Hills, CA: Windsor Publications, 1981), 83; Bennett H. Wall, ed.,
Louisiana: A History (Arlington Heights, IL: Forum Press,
22 Mary C. Henderson, Broadway Ballyhoo:
The American Theater Seen in Posters, Photographs, Magazines, Caricatures,
and Programs (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989), -13.
23 On1y a fragment of this printed broadside
or handbill exists, and it lacks the title of the ballet. This remnant
survives because Narcisse Broutin, a New Orleans notary, scrawled
some figures on it and annexed it to a notarial act of February
17, 1800, now housed at the Orleans Parish Notarial Archives. Rene
J. Le Gardeur, Jr., The First New Orleans Theatre, 1792-1803
(New Orleans: Leeward Books, 1963), 33.
24 Henderson, Broadway Ballyhoo, 13-19.
25 lbid., -166.
26 Ibid., 166-170.
27 Clinton, Printed Ephemera, 48.
Florence M. Jumonville is head librarian at the Historic
New Orleans Collection.
The Ephemera Society acknowledges with thanks the editor of Louisiana
Libraries for granting permission to reproduce this article from
Volume 53, Number 2, published in Fall 1990.